Three isotopes occur naturally, C and C being stable, while C is a radionuclide, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Back Radiation Greenhouse Effect of 33 Kelvin Possible? Since there was no way for Arrhenius to know how much of the invisible radiation might be scattered back toward the surface by cloud, he ignored this back scattering and attributed the portion of the IR radiation necessary to balance the absorbed solar radiation to the actions of the greenhouse gases and thereby concluded that the earth’s air (surface?) Thanks Jerry for your comments. I came to my computer this morning after pondering the fact that the designers of the USCRN natural laboratories placed three identical air temperature measuring instruments at the vertexes of an equilateral triangle to get a better estimate of the ‘actual’ air temperature. This has been the battle cry of all those acolytes of the Arch Priest and one-time Vice President of the United States, Al Gore. Furthermore, through some obscure references to the work of Svante Arrhenius, some people have been persuaded that the Earth is getting hotter and hotter, owing to the presence of Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere, even though it is only a trace gas at 0.04{154653b9ea5f83bbbf00f55de12e21cba2da5b4b158a426ee0e27ae0c1b44117} of the whole. when there are number it most likely is a compound. Modern carbon chemistry dates from the development of coals, petroleum, and natural gas as fuels and from the elucidation of synthetic organic chemistry, both substantially developed since the 1800s. Yet my good, no doubt well meaning, friends, wish to be Carbon free. The two known stable isotopes of carbon are 12 C (98.892 percent) and 13 C (1.108 percent). Only hydrogen, helium, oxygen, neon, and nitrogen are atomically more abundant in the cosmos than carbon. It is both scientific and logical. First you wrote: “dry desert with low levels of humidity” and then you reported relative humidity data. Here is my question. Elemental carbon exists in several forms, each of which has its own physical characteristics. The purpose of my argument was to show that cities which are humid, are not necessarily warmer than cities with a dry atmosphere. Hi James, You have just made my point. They even form a barrier called the Greenhouse Effect. For example, a hydrogen atom has 1 proton, while a carbon atom has 6 protons. Each element has a unique number of protons in its atom. GRAVISPHERES: What’s the matter with Dark Matter? Take 1 liter of water in a glass container. If there is less water vapour in the atmosphere there should be less back radiation and a lower surface temperature (according to the radiative greenhouse effect). Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The term element is used to refer to a sample of matter containing only one type of atom. Here are two questions. Carbon is the element. So, I have no idea that anyone has actually read about the observed facts that are reviewed. However the term atom refers to the individual particles of the substance - … You really need to compare the “moist enthalpy” (which includes the latent heat of vaporization of water) for the two cities. It is my understanding that a weak radio signal can be “jammed” by a more powerful transmitter at the same frequency. (source; Wiki, I.P.C.C. In 1961 the isotope carbon-12 was selected to replace oxygen as the standard relative to which the atomic weights of all the other elements are measured. #2: My understanding is that C02 re-radiates heat 360 degrees. Yes, Ar @ ~ .934%. The procedure involved the simultaneous use of extremely high pressure and temperature with iron as a solvent or catalyst. Other forms—such as carbon black, charcoal, lampblack, coal, and coke—are sometimes called amorphous, but X-ray examination has revealed that these substances do possess a low degree of crystallinity. It is called cognitive dissonance. A carbon atom is capable of combining with up to four other atoms (tetravalent), including other carbon atoms; it is this property that allows so many compounds to be formed. So why do the Warmists not blame Water Vapour? Long before you get to 400ppm, you will see dramatic differences in the transmission of visible light, even over a fraction of a meter. I am aware that relative humidity is not the same as humidity (details of which I have not found). Anyone can look it up, as I just have. Graphite is simply a form of solid carbon. June 40/24 30/18 Because it is stable, it can be found both by itself and in many naturally occurring compounds. From the Latin word carbo:charcoal. Atomic form of carbon is very short lived and readily stabilizes in multi-atomic configurations. And of course, a purpose of these natural laboratories was to verify the average temperature (to the hundredths or even thousands of a degree) of the earth being measured from satellite platforms in space. The absorption is proportional to the intensity of incoming light, and as he notes, the spontaneous emission is NOT. A third form, called fullerene, consists of a variety of molecules composed entirely of carbon. Because it conducts electricity but does not melt, graphite is also used for electrodes in electric furnaces and dry cells as well as for making crucibles in which metals are melted. For the last two decades we have all been bombarded by voices calling for a Carbon Free environment. I just read both of your articles. Thansk you for your work on the possible effect of clouds on surface temperatures at USCRN sites. Close to finishing a piece that disputes Chaos in the I.P.C.C definiton of climate, the improper mechanical use of Greenhouse and Water Vapor vs C02. Diamond is transparent. This surely must have been one of the most colossal mistakes ever perpetrated on the human race. Cheers. Yet, John O’Sullivan has posted two essay’s in which I reviewed the observed influence of cloud upon the incident solar radiation and air temperatures and surface temperatures as measured at two different NOAA USCRN project sites and these postings (https://principia-scientific.com/record-temperature-result-of-cloud-revised-updated/) and (https://principia-scientific.com/the-corvallis-or-uscrn-site-a-natural-laboratory/) and, as yet, no has made a comment relative to them, not even you. Isolated finds around the world in regions where no sources are indicated have not been uncommon. Diamond and graphite occur naturally on Earth, and they also can be produced synthetically; they are chemically inert but do combine with oxygen at high temperatures, just as amorphous carbon does. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. Two fullerene structures: an elongated carbon nanotube and a spherical buckminsterfullerene, or “buckyball.”. The following products result: (1) diamond proper—distorted cubic crystalline gem-quality stones varying from colourless to red, pink, blue, green, or yellow; (2) bort—minute dark crystals of abrasive but not gem quality; (3) ballas—randomly oriented crystals of abrasive quality; (4) macles—triangular pillow-shaped crystals that are industrially useful; and (5) carbonado—mixed diamond–graphite crystallites containing other impurities. And yes one of these observed facts are clouds. Both surface- and deep-mining techniques are used, followed by flotation, but the major portion of commercial graphite is produced by heating petroleum coke in an electric furnace. (Coals are elemental carbon mixed with varying amounts of carbon compounds. Say these Physicists, since Carbon Dioxide absorbs infrared and be it said emits it, therefore it follows that these molecules high up in the atmosphere get hot, stay hot and prevent heat ebbing away. Learn about carbon and how it forms the basis of life. It is true that Nitrogen and Oxygen, which together comprise 99{154653b9ea5f83bbbf00f55de12e21cba2da5b4b158a426ee0e27ae0c1b44117} of the atmosphere, are transparent to infrared radiation, whereas the Greenhouse gases are opaque, so a bizarre and totally illogical conclusion is reached that Greenhouse gases cause warming. “Thus, Einstein assumed that there are three processes: an absorption proportional to the intensity of light, an emission proportional to the intensity of light, called induced emission or sometimes stimulated emission, and a spontaneous emission independent of light.” Hence, I understand that the straight line IR radiation that is absorbed (or scattered by ‘cloud’ droplets) is given a ‘new’ direction by a scattering phenomenon or by the induced emission which follows the absorption which is proportional to the intensity of this straight line being emitted from a small, hot, surface (of small volume of a very hot gas whose water vapor composition is far greater than that of the surrounding atmosphere). In fact, the same element that our prehistoric ancestors burned as charcoal may be the key to next-generation tech materials.In 1985, Rick Smalley and Robert Curl of Rice University in Texas and their colleagues discovered a new form of carbon. In humans, carbon makes about 18.5% of body mass and is the second most abundant element in the body . And I believe your essay deserves more comments than they have received. Three naturally occurring allotropes of carbon are known to exist: amorphous, graphite and diamond. But is Atlanta’s atmosphere’s water vapor significantly greater than that of Phoenix as it implied on the basis of the yearly average relative humidity data ? Carbon (C), nonmetallic chemical element in Group 14 (IVa) of the periodic table. When Svante Arrhenius made his radiation balance calculation, he made two fundamental mistakes which lead to his conclusion that the earth’s average surface temperature should be 33C less than the earth’s average air temperature. Carbon is unique among the elements in the vast number and variety of compounds it can form. Carbon, the sixth most abundant element in the universe, has been known since ancient times. Liquid water is more than 1000 times as dense as the atmosphere. The Two Bottles Experiment Explained, Older PROM papers are now under the Publications menu. That was carbon. The detailed knowledge from these measurements is embedded in the MODTRAN and HITRAN databases, which present in great detail how much IR is absorbed at different wavelengths under different atmospheric conditions. Two postings (https://principia-scientific.com/record-temperature-result-of-cloud-revised-updated/) and (https://principia-scientific.com/the-corvallis-or-uscrn-site-a-natural-laboratory/) review actual data from NOAA’s two projects (SURFRAD and USCRN). Yes, it is a fact. Carbon is made up of just one type of atom. 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