Others define services addressing such needs as “wraparound services,” referring to linkages or services health care providers can offer to ensure, for example, that patients have transportation to routine health care appointments, have adequate food in their homes, and obtain legal (e.g., for tenant-landlord disputes about environmental exposure to asthma triggers) or social service assistance. Market income (e.g., wages, salaries, business income, investment income, retirement pensions, and other money income), which excludes government transfers, rose over a 35-year period from 1979 to 2013 but grew 188 percent for households in the top 1 percent and only 18 percent for the bottom four income quintiles. Specific actions by several federal and local agencies illustrate how civil rights can be promoted to promote health equity through the planning process described above. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. The following sections will expand on this process, with each step premised on the participation of diverse stakeholders. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? 2014. 2014a. San Gabriel watershed and mountains special resource study. Numerous federal and state laws and policies support a civil rights approach to health equity. Communities—and the federal and state agencies that support them in their efforts to address health disparities—have multiple examples to follow in expanding their focus beyond health care and … Many of the greatest public health successes in the United States are the result of legal or policy interventions, such as smoke-free air laws and mandatory seatbelt laws.1Yet many people may not be aware of the precise impact these interventions and approaches can have on population health. Because more serious crimes occur in poor neighborhoods, police patrol them more densely. Mizel, M. L., J. N. Miles, E. R. Pedersen, J. S. Tucker, B. Civil rights, health, and environmental justice laws and policies provide a framework to promote equal access to publicly funded resources and prohibit discrimination based on race, color, national origin, income, gender, disability, and other factors. possession (Palamar et al., 2015). NPS (National Park Service). An important starting point for promoting health equity is the analysis of disparities that bear more heavily on one group of people than another. Delinquent youth in corrections: Medicaid and reentry into the community. The Oregon experiment—effects of Medicaid on clinical outcomes. Kessler, R. C., G. J. Duncan, L. A. Gennetian, L. F. Katz, J. R. Kling, N. A. Sampson, L. Sanbonmatsu, A. M. Zaslavsky, and J. Ludwig. School suspension and the school-to-prison pipeline. Race and Social Problems 1(4):187–199. Health insurance and the consumer bankruptcy decision: Evidence from expansions of Medicaid. Healthy Food America. This evaluation should occur before and after enactment.” The. In local areas where the housing supply is tight or where investment is improving the quality and amenities of the local housing stock, development can affect housing affordability, particularly for low-income residents, leading to displacement (Finch et al., 2016; PolicyLink, 2016b). MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Collinson, R., I. G. Ellen, and J. Ludwig. Wright’s analysis illustrates the myriad strategies of the Civil Rights Movement in action: civil rights attorneys in and out of court, courageous courts, organizing in the streets, legislation, executive action, administrative enforcement, and the power of the people who defeated the call to repeal civil rights laws. Community Public Health in Policy and Practice: A Sourcebook | Cowley BA PhD PGDE RGN RHV HVT, Sarah, Whittaker PhD MSc PGCert BN(Hons), Karen | ISBN: 9780702079443 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Voluntary compliance with and enforcement of equal justice laws and policies can be preferable to court action as a means to achieve equal justice goals, including health equity. In many states a federal program is augmented through benefits or eligibility expansions. 26 There are three prongs to the discriminatory impact inquiry: (1) Whether an action impacts one group more than another—numerical disparities based on race, ethnicity, or national origin shown through statistical studies or anecdotal evidence, for example. Sommers, B. D., K. Baicker, and A. Epstein. Finkelstein, A., S. Taubman, B. Wright, M. Bernstein, J. Gruber, J. P. Newhouse, H. Allen, K. Baicker, and Oregon Health Study Group. 9 42 U.S.C. 2016. Some states also cut off their access to public employment, which has been an important source of work for inner-city minorities (Bushway et al., 2007). The analysis can include numerical disparities (in park access, for example), statistical evidence, anecdotal evidence, empirical studies and surveys, demographic data, geographical information system mapping, and financial analysis. The implication is that high-powered financial incentives, such as capitation and bundled payment, may elicit unintended responses from delivery systems and perpetuate health inequities. Model comprehensive plan language on complete streets: A framework to embrace complete streets principle. However, the overall state of research on the relationship between gun availability and violence is mixed and offers contrasting views about the importance of gun regulation for violence. Picture of subsidized households datasets. Other research concludes that living in a city with high rates of household gun ownership leads to greater odds of gun assault or gun robbery victimization (Altheimer, 2008). Available at https://, The U.S. Supreme Court in Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin in 2016 recognized the value of diversity in ways that support community-based solutions to promote health equity. One component includes a joint initiative between the Maryland Community Health Resources Commission and the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene initiative around “health enterprise zones” (HEZ). 2010. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Los Angeles, CA: The City Project. In their implementation, these laws and associated regulations require that agencies collect data, measure compliance, assess complaints, and allow for midcourse corrections. Mental health policy defines the vision for the future mental health of the population, specifying the framework which will be put in place to manage and prevent priority mental and neurological disorders. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Poverty and child development: A longitudinal study of the impact of the earned income tax credit. Along with a resurgence in capital investment in the urban core, the authors found increased racial and class segregation in addition to intensified discrimination and exclusion in gentrified neighborhoods (Wyly and Hammel, 2004). 2016. Reg. U.S. health in international perspective: Shorter lives, poorer health. Western. Washington, DC: The Democracy Collaborative. The following laws, regulations, and policies have implications for federal, state, tribal, local, and territorial governments, as well as the general public. Best practice HUD Los Angeles state historic park healthy green land use for all. Recommendation 6-4: Through multi-sectoral partnerships, hospitals and health care systems should focus their community benefit dollars to pursue long-term strategies (including changes in law, policies, and systems) to build healthier neighborhoods, expand access to housing, drive economic development, and advance other upstream initiatives aimed at eradicating the root causes of poor health, especially in low-income. CMS (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services). “A thoughtless policy can be as unfair as, and functionally equivalent to, intentional discrimination” (Rodriguez et al., 2014). NASEM. However, vulnerable residents who moved from that area tended to move to lower-income neighborhoods and experienced a worsening in financial well-being (Ding and Hwang, 2016; Ding et al., 2015). It is an opportunity, in this regard, to use additional types of data and use data in different ways. In contrast, 69 percent of the remaining $1 billion that were not invested using those standards were disproportionately invested in communities that tend to be park-rich, wealthy, and white. Does “ban the box” help or hurt low-skilled workers? In the context of curriculum and instruction, there is a broad array of programs that connect education and health, to include asthma awareness education; emotional, social, and mental health education; nutrition education; and, of course, physical education. Consistent with previous findings, they found that higher income is related to higher life expectancy and that lower income is related to lower life expectancy (NASEM, 2015; NRC and IOM, 2013; Waldron, 2007). A potential downside of minimum wage policies is their potential to decrease employment; research indicates that minimum wages can cause at least some unemployment, particularly for very low-skilled workers, including teenagers (Neumark et al., 2014). Programs and policies such as SNAP have the potential to reduce childhood and adulthood obesity and provide substantial economic returns on investment, and their effects could potentially be amplified by local sugar-sweetened beverage or “soda tax” policies. Two studies conducted in Philadelphia, including a randomized trial, found that programs to “green” and maintain vacant urban land—for example, through cleaning and plantings—led to lower rates of gun crime and vandalism; in addition, residents reported feeling safer, feeling less stress, and getting more exercise (Branas et al., 2011; Garvin et al., 2013; Huynh and Maroko, 2014). The second is more complex and far-ranging and includes the set of policies that determine if an individual becomes involved in the justice system, for how long, whether or not alternative sanctions will be offered, and how individuals will reenter the community after incarceration. 2016. Develop new tools for the preservation of culture, economy, and neighborhood character. Population growth in U.S. prisons, 1980–1996. And, conversely, the more the needs of communities are considered in decision making at the federal and state levels, the more effective those policies will be. 180–204. ED. Corp., 429 U.S. 252, 265 (1977); Griggs v. Duke Power Co., 401 U.S. 424 (1971); U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Title VI Legal Manual at pages 42–58 and cases cited (2001), available at https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/crt/legacy/2011/06/23/vimanual.pdf (accessed June 24, 2016); and Robert García and Erica Flores Baltodano, Free the Beach! G_CoG_03 Management of Funerals Where the Deceased has no Relatives or Next of Kin.pdf G_CS_82 Lincolnshire wide Policy for the Assessment and Provision of Mouth Care (Adult Mouth Care).pdf P_CIG_02 Claims Management Policy.pdf P_CIG_03 Central Alerting System Policy.pdf P_CIG_05 Consent to Examination or Treatment Policy.pdf P_CIG_08 Complaints Policy.pdf P_CIG_13 … food insecurity, particularly for children, and has also helped to reduce rates of obesity among its beneficiaries (Executive Office of the President, 2015). Community Health Network Foundation may cancel a third-party event or disassociate with a third-party event at any time if these Third-Party Event Policies are not satisfied, or if it is determined that the third-party event does not 2008. These concerns are supported by publicly available information regarding EPA’s failure to pursue filed administrative complaints, for example.17 EPA released its EJ 2020 Action Agenda in 2016 as a strategic plan to promote civil rights, environmental justice, and health. Social Security Bulletin 67(3):1–28. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Education and health: Evaluating theories and evidence. In addition to leveraging federal tax provisions around community health benefit in order to improve the social determinants of health and health equity, work by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement has shown that hospitals effectively tackle health equity not only in the community but also within their own institutions (Wyatt et al., 2016). Also in 1954, the Supreme Court held the Equal Protection Clause protects against discrimination based on race, color, national origin, ancestry, or descent in Hernandez v. Texas, 347 U.S. 475 (1954). 2011. Schools can take actions to improve the immediate health and well-being of their students. Through a civil rights lens, health equity involves the fair distribution of both the benefits and the burdens of programs and activities. The federal government increased the minimum wage to $7.25 in 2009. The process includes five major elements and can be used by community-based groups to assess both current policies and practices and those under consideration. 2016a. Desired improvements in education and health outcomes are unlikely to be achieved by one-dimensional interventions. NPS. In contrast, families receiving tenant-based subsidies like housing vouchers do not typically use them to move to neighborhoods that are substantially different from where they were previously living, although some research indicates that families receiving vouchers who have school-age children will move if housing is available near higher-performing schools (Ellen et al., 2016; Sanbonmatsu et al., 2011). Communities operate in the context of federal and state policies that can affect local government decisions relevant to health through laws and regulations, through the allocation of resources, and by shaping political will on issues and approaches. Given that minimum wages vary significantly due to state and local policies, such policies are another driver of health inequity at the community level. New England Journal of Medicine 367:1025–1034. Mid-America Regional Council Community Services Corporation. 27 To evaluate an intentional discrimination claim, circumstantial evidence includes (1) whether an action impacts one group more than another, including numerical disparities shown through statistical studies and anecdotal evidence; (2) a history of discrimination; (3) departures from substantive norms; (4) departures from procedural norms; (5) a pattern of discrimination; and (6) the decision maker knows the harm a decision will cause. University of Pennsylvania Law Review 143(5):1285–1342. Disadvantage can further compound inequities in other ways. In a 2011 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, the authoring committee recommended that “states and the federal government develop and employ a ‘health in all policies’ (HIAP) approach to consider the health effects—both positive and negative—of major legislation, regulations, and other policies that could potentially have a meaningful impact on the public’s health” (IOM, 2011). Finally, the CBO measured after-tax income, which takes into account both government transfers and taxes. 2015. Cambridge, MA: Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Nicosia, N., J. M. MacDonald, and J. Arkes. withheld federal subsidies for a proposed warehouse project in response to significant local community action, pending a full study under the civil rights and environmental justice laws to consider a park alternative and the impact on people of color and low-income people. Half of tax offsets, including exclusions, deductions, preferential rates, and credits, go to those in the highest fifth of incomes (CBO, 2016). 2011. 2011. 2014. 2011. 2016. 2009. Call your primary care office for a phone or video visit. James, J. In 1963, a federal court of appeals struck down “separate but equal” under the Act in Simkins v. Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital. Statistical brief 421. Youth who live in stable two-parent, higher-income families are more likely to be released than youth living in single-parent, lower-income families, which has implications also for further sanctions and for educational disruptions. https://multco.us/file/31824/download (accessed October 28, 2016). Code §§ 5640 et seq. First, ESSA calls for the identification of evidence-based interventions. IOM and NRC (National Research Council). Program rules further shape the distribution of benefits among the low-income population: a study by Ben-Shalom et al. 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